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Default Designing Dipolar Recoupling and Decoupling Experiments for Biological Solid-State NMR Using Interleaved Continuous Wave and rf Pulse Irradiation.

Designing Dipolar Recoupling and Decoupling Experiments for Biological Solid-State NMR Using Interleaved Continuous Wave and rf Pulse Irradiation.

Designing Dipolar Recoupling and Decoupling Experiments for Biological Solid-State NMR Using Interleaved Continuous Wave and rf Pulse Irradiation.

Acc Chem Res. 2013 Apr 4;

Authors: Bjerring M, Jain S, Paaske B, Vinther JM, Nielsen NC

Abstract
Rapid developments in solid-state NMR methodologyhave boosted this technique into a highly versatile tool for structural biology. The invention of increasingly advanced rf pulse sequences that take advantage of better hardware and sample preparation have played an important part in these advances. In the development of these new pulse sequences, researchers have taken advantage of analytical tools, such as average Hamiltonian theory or lately numerical methods based on optimal control theory. In this Account, we focus on the interplay between these strategies in the systematic development of simple pulse sequences that combines continuous wave (CW) irradiation with short pulses to obtain improved rf pulse, recoupling, sampling, and decoupling performance. Our initial work on this problem focused on the challenges associated with the increasing use of fully or partly deuterated proteins to obtain high-resolution, liquid-state-like solid-state NMR spectra. Here we exploit the overwhelming presence of (2)H in such samples as a source of polarization and to gain structural information. The (2)H nuclei possess dominant quadrupolar couplings which complicate even the simplest operations, such as rf pulses and polarization transfer to surrounding nuclei. Using optimal control and easy analytical adaptations, we demonstrate that a series of rotor synchronized short pulses may form the basis for essentially ideal rf pulse performance. Using similar approaches, we design (2)H to (13)C polarization transfer experiments that increase the efficiency by one order of magnitude over standard cross polarization experiments. We demonstrate how we can translate advanced optimal control waveforms into simple interleaved CW and rf pulse methods that form a new cross polarization experiment. This experiment significantly improves (1)H-(15)N and (15)N-(13)C transfers, which are key elements in the vast majority of biological solid-state NMR experiments. In addition, we demonstrate how interleaved sampling of spectra exploiting polarization from (1)H and (2)H nuclei can substantially enhance the sensitivity of such experiments. Finally, we present systematic development of (1)H decoupling methods where CW irradiation of moderate amplitude is interleaved with strong rotor-synchronized refocusing pulses. We show that these sequences remove residual cross terms between dipolar coupling and chemical shielding anisotropy more effectively and improve the spectral resolution over that observed in current state-of-the-art methods.


PMID: 23557787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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