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Default Increasing nitroxide lifetime in cells to enable in-cell protein structure and dynamics measurements by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

Increasing nitroxide lifetime in cells to enable in-cell protein structure and dynamics measurements by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

Publication date: February 2019

Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Volume 299

Author(s): Kevin Singewald, Matthew J. Lawless, Sunil Saxena

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that the stability, structure, dynamics, and function of many proteins differ in cells versus in vitro. The determination of protein structure and dynamics within the native cellular environment may lead to better understanding of protein behavior. Electron spin resonance (ESR) has emerged as a technique that can report on protein structure and dynamics within cells. Nitroxide based spin labels are capable of reporting on protein dynamics, structure, and backbone flexibility but are limited due to nitroxide reduction occurring in cells. In order to overcome this limitation, we used the oxidizing agent potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) as well as the cleavage resistant spin label 3-malemido-PROXYL (5-MSL). Furthermore, we hypothesized that injection concentration is an important parameter regarding nitroxide reduction kinetics. By increasing the injection concentration of doubly 5-MSL labeled protein into Xenopus laevis oocytes, we found an increased nitroxide lifetime. Our work demonstrates unprecedented incubation times of 3-h in-cell and 5-h in-cytosol for double electron–electron resonance (DEER) experiments using nitroxide spin labels. This allows for more meaningful measurements of larger protein systems which may require longer incubation times for equilibration in the cellular milieu. Even longer incubation times are possible by combining our approach with more shielded nitroxides and Q-band.



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