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Default Differentiation of the binding of two ligands to a tetrameric protein with a single symmetric active site by 19F NMR

Differentiation of the binding of two ligands to a tetrameric protein with a single symmetric active site by 19F NMR

Abstract

R67 dihydrofolate reductase (R67 DHFR) is a plasmid-encoded enzyme that confers resistance to the antibacterial drug trimethoprim. R67 DHFR is a tetramer with a single active site that is unusual as both cofactor and substrate are recognized by symmetry-related residues. Such promiscuity has limited our previous efforts to differentiate ligand binding by NMR. To address this problem, we incorporated fluorine at positions 4, 5, 6, or 7 of the indole rings of tryptophans 38 and 45 and characterized the spectra to determine which probe was optimal for studying ligand binding. Two resonances were observed for all apo proteins. Unexpectedly, the W45 resonance appeared broad, and truncation of the disordered N-termini resulted in the appearance of one sharp W45 resonance. These results are consistent with interaction of the N-terminus with W45. Binding of the cofactor broadened W38 for all fluorine probes, whereas substrate, dihydrofolate, binding resulted in the appearance of three new resonances for 4- and 5-fluoroindole labeled protein and severe line broadening for 6- and 7-fluoroindole R67 DHFR. W45 became slightly broader upon ligand binding. With only two peaks in the 19F NMR spectra, our data were able to differentiate cofactor and substrate binding to the single, symmetric active site of R67 DHFR and yield binding affinities.



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