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Default Chaperones and chaperone–substrate complexes: Dynamic playgrounds for NMR spectroscopists

Chaperones and chaperone–substrate complexes: Dynamic playgrounds for NMR spectroscopists


Publication date: April 2015
Source:Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Volumes 86–87

Author(s): Björn M. Burmann , Sebastian Hiller

The majority of proteins depend on a well-defined three-dimensional structure to obtain their functionality. In the cellular environment, the process of protein folding is guided by molecular chaperones to avoid misfolding, aggregation, and the generation of toxic species. To this end, living cells contain complex networks of molecular chaperones, which interact with substrate polypeptides by a multitude of different functionalities: transport them towards a target location, help them fold, unfold misfolded species, resolve aggregates, or deliver them towards a proteolysis machinery. Despite the availability of high-resolution crystal structures of many important chaperones in their substrate-free apo forms, structural information about how substrates are bound by chaperones and how they are protected from misfolding and aggregation is very sparse. This lack of information arises from the highly dynamic nature of chaperone–substrate complexes, which so far has largely hindered their crystallization. This highly dynamic nature makes chaperone–substrate complexes good targets for NMR spectroscopy. Here, we review the results achieved by NMR spectroscopy to understand chaperone function in general and details of chaperone–substrate interactions in particular. We assess the information content and applicability of different NMR techniques for the characterization of chaperones and chaperone–substrate complexes. Finally, we highlight three recent studies, which have provided structural descriptions of chaperone–substrate complexes at atomic resolution.
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