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Default Structural Polymorphism of Alzheimer's ?-Amyloid Fibrils as Controlled by an E22 Switch: A Solid-State NMR Study.

Structural Polymorphism of Alzheimer's ?-Amyloid Fibrils as Controlled by an E22 Switch: A Solid-State NMR Study.

Structural Polymorphism of Alzheimer's ?-Amyloid Fibrils as Controlled by an E22 Switch: A Solid-State NMR Study.

J Am Chem Soc. 2016 Jul 14;

Authors: Elkins MR, Wang T, Nick M, Jo H, Lemmin T, Prusiner SB, DeGrado WF, Stoehr J, Hong M

Abstract
The amyloid-? (A?) peptide of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) forms polymorphic fibrils on the micrometer scale and molecular scale. Various fibril growth conditions have been identified to cause polymorphism, but the intrinsic amino acid sequence basis for this polymorphism has been unclear. Several single-site mutations in the center of the A? sequence cause different disease phenotypes and fibrillization properties. The E22G (Arctic) mutant is found in familial AD and forms protofibrils more rapidly than wild-type A?. Here, we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate the structure, dynamics, hydration and morphology of Arctic E22G A?40 fibrils. 13C, 15N-labeled synthetic E22G A?40 peptides are studied and compared with wild-type and Osaka E22? A?40 fibrils. Under the same fibrillization conditions, Arctic A?40 exhibits a high degree of polymorphism, showing at least four sets of NMR chemical shifts for various residues, while the Osaka and wild-type A?40 fibrils show a single or a predominant set of chemical shifts. Thus, structural polymorphism is intrinsic to the Arctic E22G A?40 sequence. Chemical shifts and inter-residue contacts obtained from 2D correlation spectra indicate that one of the major Arctic conformers has surprisingly high structural similarity with wild-type A?42. 13C-1H dipolar order parameters, 1H rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation times and water-to-protein spin diffusion experiments reveal substantial differences in the dynamics and hydration of Arctic, Osaka and wild-type A?40 fibrils. Together, these results strongly suggest that electrostatic interactions in the center of the A? peptide sequence play a crucial role in the three-dimensional fold of the fibrils, and by inference, fibril-induced neuronal toxicity and AD pathogenesis.


PMID: 27414264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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